15.) The Doctrine of the Iṣṭa in Hinduism—An Elaboration

The freedom of choosing one’s deity for oneself, which is a sort of fundamental right of a Hindu, has been widely recognized and even appreciated. Klaus K. Klostermaier alludes to this colourful variety of iṣṭadevatās when he writes:

Many Hindu homes are lavishly decorated with color prints of a great many Hindu gods and goddesses, often joined by the gods and goddesses of other religions and the pictures of contemporary heroes. Thus side by side with Śiva and Viṣṇu and Devī one can see Jesus and Zoroaster, Gautama Buddha and Jina Mahāvīra, Mahātmā Gandhi and Jawaharal Nehru, and many others. But if questioned about the many gods even the illiterate villager will answer: bhagvān ek hai – the Lord is One. He may not be able to figure out in theological terms how many gods and the one god hang together and he may not be sure about the hierarchy obtaining among many manifestations, but he does know that ultimately there is only One and that many somehow merge into the One.[1]

This is also a key element in Hindu tolerance – which allows for preference but no exclusion. Most discussions of this topic stop at this point. We wish to take it a step further. This further step consists of recognizing that although one does have the right to one’s own iṣṭa, so does the other person have the right to his or her iṣṭa, even if it does not appeal to us. The point is driven home by the great saint of Hinduism, Shree Swaninarayan (1781-1830) whom M. G. Ranade describes as “the last of the Hindu reformers of the old type”.[2] This is what he says:

To know God when in human form is really very difficult. God with all divinity assumes human form for the fulfillment of his divine mission. But then it certainly does not mean that He has become human and hence devoid of all His divinity, glory and infinite powers. God in the form of a Varaha (Boar) appeared very repulsive. Again in His incarnation as Matsyavatar (Fish) He behaved as fish and remained in water. Again as Kurma (Tortoise) He assumed the form of a tortoise. As Nrisimha Avatara, His form was really frightening. Vamana – the form of a dwarf appeared ugly with short hands and legs and a heavy waist. As Vyasa He was black in complexion, with abundant growth of hair on the body. A nasty smell wafted from his body. All these various forms of God, to the human eye and mind, do not appear like God, because of the various conceptions of God, that the human mind has formed, and yet those who knew them as God meditated upon such forms and attained salvation.[3]

He goes on to say:

He (God) appears as Matsya, Kurma, Varaha and also as Rama and Krishna, for fulfilling certain missions. God is all bliss, overwhelmingly luminous, emitting such light from one single particle of his body, that is equivalent to the light of millions of suns. His original divine form in the divine abode does not undergo such changes in form since he simply desires to manifest accordingly. His manifested form on the earth in the human frame also possesses all his divine powers and Lordship. When the purpose for which He assumed such a body is fulfilled, He reverts to His abode. After fulfilling His mission on earth, He discards the physical form which He has assumed……He eradicated human ego by assuming human form.[4]

Perhaps a further point can also be developed in the same direction – once the idea of the iṣṭa is viewed in a more critical and modern light. To approve or to disapprove of an iṣṭa is clearly a matter of choice or preference. In our own life in modern times, however, one may develop a more nuanced understanding of one’s iṣṭa so that it might be possible to have an iṣṭa and further to develop one’s own chosen vision of one’s own chosen god.

A good example of this is provided by Rāma in relation to Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Ghandi had chosen Rāma as his iṣṭa devatā and Rāma stood for him not only as God, but also as a paradigmatic and ideal individual. One such ideal dear to Gandhi was love and compassion for all—including the meanest creature. There is a story in the Rāmāyaa, however, which, according to many would seem to call this quality of Rāma into question. It consists of Rāma killing an ascetic who was engaging in practices not approved for his caste. This is the well known incident pertaining to Śambūka. Those who love Rāma but are disturbed by this incident deal with it in various ways. Some might reject Rāma altogether; others may appreciate only some aspects of his character and without passing judgment on the rest. Gandhi’s way of dealing with it was to dismiss this episode as in interpolation. This is the outcome of his search for an answer to the question: Who is Rāma?[5]

[1] Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism (second edition) (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994) p. 149.

[2] Ibid., p 103-104

[3] See G.N. Joshi, “Shri Swaminarayan”, in New Dimensions in Vedanta Philosophy (Ahmedabad: Shri Aksharapurshottam Sanstha, 1981) p. 95.

[4] Ibid., p. 104.

[5] M.K. Gandhi, Hindu Dharma (edited by Bharatan Kumarappa) (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Press, 1950) p. 9.


7 Responses to “15.) The Doctrine of the Iṣṭa in Hinduism—An Elaboration”

  1. Parvati Says:

    cannot read for erros, please correct

  2. Govinda Says:

    Very thought provoking articles by Dr. Sharma.

    As a side ntoe — some characters are not legible in this and other articles. Also, could these articles made available in pdf format so that we can print and read them — reading serious articles online is not easy for people like me.


  3. latha vidyaranya Says:

    Ishta devataas can also be deities many of whose qualities we would like to emulate or many qualities that we try to identify ourselves with. Hence there can be as many deities as the number of devotees – each deity as per his/her own perception. It is this identification or perception that takes us closer to the deity and slowly towards that all pervasive Formless One! That is the all-inclusive greatness of sanaatana dharma.

  4. yogesh saxena Says:
    A guide to various aspects of Indian religious thought and inter-religious understanding and religious tolerance. “Its chief mark consists in concentration on the spiritual aspect, belief in the intimate relationship of philosophy and life, the inseparability of theory and practice and the insistence on intuition coexisting with the acceptance. Religion An Introduction It has been pointed out by Dr. Arnold J. Toynbee, in A Study of History, that the principal civilisations of the world lay different degrees of emphasis on specific lines of activity. Hellenic civilisation, for instance, displays a manifest tendency towards a prominently aesthetic outlook on life as a whole. Indian civilisation, on the other hand, shows an equally manifest tendency towards a predominantly religious outlook. Dr. Toynbee’s remark sums up what has been observed by many other scholars. Indeed, the study of Hinduism has to be, in a large measure, a study of the general Hindu outlook on life. Receptivity and all-comprehensiveness, it has been aptly stated, are the main characteristics of Hinduism. Since it has had no difficulty in bringing diverse faiths within its ever-widening fold, it has something to offer to almost all minds. Monier-Williams in his notable work Brahmanism and Hinduism dwelt on This aspect about a hundred years ago. The strength of Hinduism, he emphasized, lies in its infinite adaptability to the infinite diversity of human character and human tendencies. It has its highly spiritual and abstract side suited to the philosopher; its practical and concrete side congenial to the man of the world; its aesthetic and ceremonial side attuned to the man of the poetic feeling and imagination; and its quiescent contemplative aspect that has its appeal for the man of peace and the lover of seclusion. The Hindus, according to him, were Spinozists more than 2,000 years before the advent of Spinoza, Darwinians many centuries before Darwin. and Evolutionists many centuries before the doctrine of Evolution was accepted by scientists of the present age. No civilisation anywhere in the world, with the probable exception of China, has been as continuous as that of India. While the civilisations of Egypt, Babylon and Assyria have disappeared, in India the ideas emanating from the Vedic times continue to be a living force. European scholars of Sanskrit like Sir William Jones noted similarities in the languages, terminology and substances of Indian scriptures with those of Greece and Rome. Even a superficial study convinced them that, while the language of the Vedas is a great critical instrument in the construction of the science of philology, the Vedic hymns constitute a compilation of most Indo-European myths in their primitive form. Max Muller went so far as to say that the Vedas are the real theogony of the Aryan races, Homer and Hesiod having given a distorted picture of the original image. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro and those in Saurashtra have disclosed the existence of a highly evolved culture long before the Aryan immigration, perhaps dating back to 3000 B.C. or later. Among the remains discovered are a three-faced prototype of Siva seated in a yogic posture, representations of the Linga, and a horned goddess associated with the pipal tree. These symbols, evolved by a very ancient civilisation, were assimilated by the Aryan immigrants in slow stages-their earliest literary work, the .Rg-Veda, almost overlooks these aspects. The Vedic Aryans, it has been suggested, partly assimilated and partly destroyed the earlier culture. Vedic Aryans and Zoroastrianism It seems clear from the hymns of the .Rg-Veda and the Persian Gathas and Avesta that the Vedic Aryans and the Zoroastrians had a common origin. The languages in which Zoroaster preached and the Rsis sang their hymns are almost identical, and Vedic meters are re-produced in the Avesta. Evidently, the two groups of Aryans separated after a violent quarrel, so that several deities of one group – Indra or Jindra, Sarva and Nasatya – were transformed in the other into evil spirits. It is, however, to be noticed that Mitra, Aryama, Vayu and Vrtraghna are divine in both the systems. A period of unity was probably followed by civil war, as envisaged in the fight between Asuras and Devas. The Vedic Aryans were warlike, while the Avesta reflects an abhorrence of war. In the period when the ancestors of the Iranians and the Hindus had lived together, Asura had been a term of honour; and the Zoroastrian Ahura Mazda was Asura Mahat, the great Asura. The .Rg-Yeda (III-55-11 & 15) cites several Asura qualities of the Divinities. Varuna, Mitra and several other gods were called Asuras. Later, when differences were accentuated between the two communities, Asura became equivalent to a spirit of evil and Sura came to signify a good spirit. The undivided Indo-Iranians must have passed a long time in their Central Asian home. The Indo-Iranian culture and religion have been reconstructed, at least in part, by comparing the Vedas with the Avesta. Before the occupation of Iranian high lands by tribes from the Indo-Iranian original home, the plateau was the seat of a culture that was probably matriarchal, and the people worshipped snake-gods in the manner of India’s primitive non-Aryans. It is likely that the pre-Aryan cultures of North- western India and Iran were alike in origin and spirit. This ancient cultural link between pre-Aryan Iran and pre- Aryan India, instead of getting strengthened by Aryan migration into the two countries, as could be normally expected, was to all appearances completely severed. Also, there is nothing to show that the Vedic Aryans of India maintained an active cultural relation with their brethren in Iran. In the earliest days, while the Aryans of India must have been connected with the Aryans of Iran as friends or as foes, actual historical contact cannot be asserted with any degree of probability. The two peoples turned their backs upon each other, as it were, and developed their distinctive civilisations apparently without the least mutual influence, although in language, culture and religion their similarity in the earliest period had been little short of identity. When, later in history, under the Achaemenids, Greeks, Bactrians and Sakas, the Iranians and the Indians were forced to meet as citizens of the same empire, they met as complete strangers, not as cousins or as scions from the same stock. The earliest literary productions of the Aryan settlers in India were the Rg-Veda, Sama Veda (consisting of chants), Yajur Veda and the Atharva Veda (a composite religious and magical compilation) The Vedas comprise Mantras (hymns ), Brahmanas (ritual and ceremonies), Aranyakas (forest speculations) and the philosophical Upanisads. In the context of This commonly accepted interpretation of the Vedas, it may be recalled that European Orientalists have too often considered them mainly from the theological, anthropological and sociological points of view. A study of the material in its religious aspect is difficult, since even the great commentary of Sayana is in terms of the ideas of his own age. On the presumption that the Vedas originated in primitive times, the Rg-Veda hymns were regarded as the outpourings of a child-like nature worship. John Dowson in his Hindu Classical Dictionary observed: “The Aryan settlers were a pastoral and agricultural people, and they were keenly alive to those influences which affected their prosperity and comfort. They knew the effects of heat and cold, rain and drought, upon their crops and herds, and they marked the influence of warmth and cold, sunshine and rain, wind and storm, upon their own personal comfort. They invested these benign and evil influences with a personality; and behind the fire, the sun, the cloud, and the other powers of nature, they saw beings who directed them in their beneficent and evil operations. To these imaginary beings they addressed their praises, and to them they put up their prayers for temporal blessings. They observed also the movements of the sun and moon, the constant succession of day and night, the intervening periods of morn and eve, and to these also they gave personalities, which they invested with poetical clothing and attributes. Thus observant of nature in its various changes and operations, alive to its influences upon themselves, and perceptive of its beauties, they formed for themselves deities in whose glory and honour they exerted their poetic faculty.”; But on a careful analysis of the Vedas it would be apparent that the Vedic view is more subtle and deeper in concept. The One Being whom the sages call by many names (Ekam-sat) is referred to in the neuter gender, signifying divine existence and not a divine individual. The monotheistic God stands in relation to man as a father and a patriarch, while in a Rg-Veda hymn to Agni he is called “my father, my kinsman, my brother and my friend”. Monotheism, it has been aptly stated “contemplates the Divine in heaven and polytheism contemplates the Divine in the universe. Polytheism believes in the assembly of gods, each possessing a character of his own. Max Muller coined the word henotheism for indicating the tendency of the Vedic seers to magnify the importance of the particular deity they are praising in a hymn at the expense of the other gods. This has been described as “opportunist monotheism”. One deity is identified with another or different deities are identified with one divine entity, indifferently described as Ekam (one) and Tat Sat (the reality). Vedic concepts Apart from these concepts. there are two basic ideas underlying the Vedas – Satya (truth) and Rta (eternal order); and every god or goddess exemplifies and represents these two ideas.As Abinash Chandra Bose says in his Ca11 of the Vedas, Vedic theism is based on moral values which (also in the case of Buddhism) may be upheld in a non-theistic way. In India it is not the atheist who is denounced but the person who repudiates Dharma, moral law. The Rg-Veda (X-85-1) states that the earth is sustained not by the will of God but by truth, and of This truth God is the supreme exponent, revealing Himself through Rta or eternal order. Examining the Vedic hymns as a whole, one discovers a doctrine, not of oneness, but of one divine substance pervading all. It is stated that the One Being is contemplated by the sages in many forms: Ekam santam bahudha kalpayanti (Rg-Veda, X-114-5). It may also be observed that the Vedic ritual or Yajna is a uniform ceremonial; whatever deity is worshipped, the ritual is the same. The universality of the Vedas is not often realised. The Rg Veda asserts that God is the God of Dasa as well as of Arya – “Lord God is he to whom both Arya and Dasa belong”. (Rg Veda, Vlll-51-9). There is a special prayer for the forgiveness of sins against the foreigner (Rg-Veda, V-35-7). According to the Atharva Veda, God is of the foreigner (Videsya) no less than of our own land (Samdesya). There are mantras which extend This principle to all living beings (sarvani bhutani) ( Yajur Veda, 36-18) so that we come to a grand conception of universal peace and serenity – the harmony with Nature (sarvam santhi) (Yajur Veda, 36-17). Many schools of thought Panini is one of the world’s earliest as well as the greatest of scientific grammarians. The consensus of opinion fixed his date not later than the 5th century B.C. At that period Yajna or sacrifice and the worship of various deities were current and popular, and theistic devotion to particular divinities, generally expressed by the term Bhakti, had become prevalent. Panini refers to Vasudev as the object of devotion, and Paramatma Devata Visesa, a form of the One Supreme Divinity. The doctrine which assumed great importance later – that custom has the force of law – is also exemplified by the twofold meaning, in Panini’s Astadhyayi, attached to Dharma. Dharma is not only equivalent to Rta, primordial law, but also denotes custom (acara) as in the later Dharma Sutras. Already in Panini’s days different schools of thought had arisen, both theistic and non-theistic. A non-theistic doctrine, which is described in Buddhist philosophy as the doctrine of non-causation and also as the doctrine of Yadrccha- (fortuitous accident), was current in Panini’s time. That all existence was the result of chance was the doctrine of the Ahetuvadins. The Svetasvatara Upanisad which advocates the doctrine of the supreme spirit refers to other varieties of thought like those of the advocates of Svabhava or materialistic philosophy. Orthodox thought was later developed in the Samkhya philosophy and attained its climax in the Vedanta Sutras. Panini refers to Parasara Sutra, one of the earliest of the Vedanta treatises, and also to the atheistic school, known later as the Lokayata. There is mention also of Nihsreyasa which, in the Upanisads, denoted supreme bliss as also of Nirvana , possibly associated with Buddhism. From all these examples it is clear that, in the times of the Buddha and Panini, practically all the varieties of speculation which have flourished in India had already evolved. . Philosophical discourses and pursuits were at first specially developed by the Ksatriyas, but they soon became the prerogatives of the Brahmins. The Chandogya and Kausitaki Upanisads illustrate these successive stages. A solution of the ultimate problems of life is outlined in the early Upanisads, and it takes the form of Monism, absolute (according to Sankaracarya) or modified (according to Ramanuja). Filled with zeal for This doctrine of the Unity or Interdependence of all life, a social order was founded. Dr. Ananda Coomaraswamy in his Dance of Siva says that the great Epics represented the desired social order as having actually existed in the golden past; they put into the mouths of their heroes not only the philosophy but the theory of its application in practice. This is evident, above all, in the long discourse of the dying Bhisma in the Santiparva of the Mahabharata. “The heroes themselves they made ideal types of character for the guidance of all subsequent generations; for the education of India has been accomplished deliberately through hero-worship. In the Dharmashastra of Manu and the Arthashastra of Chanakya – perhaps the most remarkable sociological documents the world possesses -they set forth the picture of the ideal society, defined from the stand point of law. By these and other means they accomplished what has not yet been effected in any other country, in making religious philosophy the essential and intelligible basis of popular culture and national polity”. What, then, is This view of life ? The inseparable unity of the material and spiritual world is made the foundation of Indian culture and that determines the whole character of Indian social ideals. Later Hindu thought is founded on the rhythmic nature of the world process, including evolution and involution, birth, death and rebirth, srsti and samhara. Every individual life – mineral, vegetable, animal, human- has a beginning and an end; This creation and destruction, appearance and disappearance, are of the essence of the world process and equally originate in the past, present and future. According to This view, then, every individual ego (jivatman) or separate expression of the general will to life (icchatrsna), must be regarded as having reached a certain stage of its own cycle. This is also true of the collective life of a nation, a planet or a cosmic system. It is further considered that the turning- point of This curve is reached in man, and hence the immeasurable value which Hindus (and Buddhists) attach to birth in human form. Before the turning-point is reached – to use the language of Christian theology – the natural man prevails; after it, the regener man. To sum up, Indian philosophic thought developed in several stages. The Vedic period is generally placed between 2500 B.C. and 600 B.C. As already indicated, the four Vedas, the Bramanas, Aranyakas, and Upanisads are creations of the early sages. The Upanisads The Upanisads are diverse in character and outlook. They recognize intuition rather than reason as a path to ultimate truth. They also represent a strong reaction against the merely ritual and sacrificial duties on which stress had been laid earlier. The Upanisads are supposed to be 108 or more in number. Twelve of them are generally recognized as the principal units. The Isa Upanisad begins with the statement that whatever exists in This world is enveloped by the Supreme. It is by renunciation and absence of possessiveness that the soul is saved. In the Kena Upaniad, the Goddess Uma Haimavati in the form of Supreme Knowledge expounds the doctrine of the Brahman or Supreme Entity. The Katha Upanisad embodies the aspiration of Naciketas, who declined his father’s offer of property and went into exile, making his way to the region of Yama,the God of Death. Naciketas, in his dialogue with Yama, declines all the worldly possessions and dignities offered by Yama and asserts that all enjoyments are transient and the boon he asks for is the secret of immortality. In This Upanisad occurs the famous saying “The knowledge of the Supreme is not gained by argument but by the teaching of one who possesses intuition” In the Mundaka Upanisad occurs the verse which is the germ of the Bhagavad-Gita . People who perform actions and are attached to the world are pursuing a futile path, and This Upanisad accordingly declares: “Let the wise man, having examined the world and perceived the motives and the results of actions, realize that as from a blazing fire sparks proceed, living souls originate from the indestructible Brahman and return to Him. All doubts disappear and the attachment to work subsides when the Supreme Being is cognized.” These basic doctrines are further expounded in the Taitiriya Upanisad, which contains This famous verse repeated in other Upanisads: “””May we both (teacher and disciple) be protected; may we both obtain sustenance; !et both of us at the same time apply (our) energies (for the acquirement of knowledge); may our reading be illustrious; may there be no hatred (amongst us). Peace, peace, peace . In the more recent Svetasvatara Upanisad is found a summary of the main Upanisadic doctrines, and the idea of devotion to a personal God is also developed. The Chandogya Upanisad, one of the earliest, states that the main doctrines of the Upanisads, were first expounded by the Kshatriyas and not by the Brahmins. Later, as is evident from the Kausitaki Upanisad, the Brahmins took up the intensive study of philosophy. The contrast which is often drawn between Brahminism and Hinduism is therefore not based on a right appraisal of the facts. The Epics The period of the Epics succeeded the period of the Upanisads. In the Ramayana and the Mahabharat, philosophical doctrines were presented in the form of stories and parables. In these poems of the heroic age recounting the qualities and exploits of exalted individuals theVedic gods are no longer supreme. Some have disappeared altogether. Indra retains a place of some dignity; but Brahma, Siva and Visnu have risen to pre-eminence. Even of these three, the first becomes subordinate. Visnu and Siva become the out- standing entities and are alternately elevated to supreme dignity and very often their ultimate oneness is proclaimed. Visnu in the Vedas was the friend and companion of Indra and strode over the universe in three paces; in the Epics he often becomes the great deity of destruction as well as of renovation. Each of these two gods in his turn contends with and subdues the other; now one, now the other, receives the homage of his rival, a d each in turn is lauded and honoured as the greatest of gods. The Avatars The Avatars, incarnations of Visnu, assume a prominent place in the Epics, and more so in the Puranas. The first three, Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise) and Varaha (boar) have a cosmic character and are foreshadowed in the hymns of the vedas. The fourth incarnation, Nrsimha (man-lion), seems to belong to a later age, when the worship of Visnu had become established. The fifth, Vamana (dwarf), whose three strides deprived the Asuras of the domination of heaven and earth, is in character anterior to the fourth Avatara and the three strides are attributed to Visnu in the Vedic text as Urukrama. The sixth, seventh and eighth, Parasurama. Ramcandra and Krsna, are mortal heroes whose exploits are celebrated in these poems so fervently as to raise the heroes to the rank of gods. The ninth Avatara, the Buddha, is the deification of a great teacher. The tenth, Kalki, is yet to come; he resembles the manifestation referred to in the Biblical Revelation. The system of religious thought propounded in the Vedas and the Epics and especially in the Bhagavad-Gita (a part of the Mahabharata) survived the Buddhist impact which led to a renunciation of much ritual and metaphysics on the part of a sizable proportion of the population. Buddhism was absorbed into the parent religion within a few centuries and Hinduism, as the Vedic religion had come to be called, adopted the theory of the Avataras or incarnations according to which the Buddha himself was accepted as Avatara. Jainism also became, in essence, a doctrinal modification and adaptation of the Vedic religion. Dr. Toynbee has noted, in response to an ever more insistent craving in Indic souls to apprehend the unity of God, the myriad divinities gradually dissolved and colesced into one or other of the two mighty figutre of Siva and Vishnu. he adds that this stage on the road towards the apprehension of the unity of god was attained at least 1,500 years ago. Buddhist Influence We now come to the greatest contribution made by the Buddha to Indian thought and world culture. Dr. Radhakrishnan, in his edition of ‘Dhammapada” (which embodies Buddhist teachings), has stated that, judged by intellectual integrity, moral earnestness and spiritual insight, the Buddha is undoubtedly one of the greatest figures in history. The same scholar pointed out that, altough ther were different streams of thought operating on men’s minds in the 6th century B.C. philosophic thought was agreed at that time on certain fundamentals. Life does not begin at birth or end at death; it is a link in an infinite series of lives. each of which is conditioned and determined by acta done in previous existences. Relief from the round of births, resulting in life in eternity is the goal, indicated by such terms as Moksa(deliverance) and Nirvana(union with the Brahman). The means of attainment are prayer and worship; ritual and sacrifice; and Vidya(realization by knowledge). Even though the Buddha accepted the doctrines of Karma and rebirth and the non-reality of the empirical universe, he declined to speculate on Moksa and on the doctrine of the Atman and Paramatman . He laid stress on the supremacy of the ethical aspect, and his outlook was definitely practical and empirical. In fact, the Buddha did not tolerate any doctrines which, he thought, diverted the mind from the central problem of suffering, the cause of suffering and its removal, and the urgency of the moral task. . He rejected the doctrine of the Vedanta that the ego is permanent and unchanging. At the same time, he did not countenance the view that, at death, it is destroyed. As Dr. Radhakrishnan says, the Buddha came to the conclusion that interest in the super- natural diverts attention and energy from the ethical values and the exploration of actual conditions: Karma builds the world and Dharma is an organic part of all existence. The Bhagavad-Gita Every variety of Hindu philosophy has its source in the Upanisads, the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana of Vyasa and the Bhagavad-Gita which forms a part of the Mahabharata. It was as a reaction to the tendencies exhibited by Buddhism and Jainism that the orthodox schools of Indian philosophy had their origin and the Bhagavad-Gita is their epitome. This work contains the essence of Indian teaching about the duties of life as well as spiritual obligations. Everyone has his allotted duties of various kinds. Sin arises not from the nature of the work itself but from the disposition with which the work is performed. When it is performed without attachment to the result, it cannot tarnish the soul and impede its quest. True Yoga consists in the acquisition of experience and the passage through life in harmony with the ultimate laws of equanimity, non-attachment to the fruits of action, and faith in the pervasiveness of the Supreme Spirit. Absorption in that Spirit can be attained along several paths; and no path is to be preferred cxclusively and none to be disdained. These doctrines have been interpreted as marking a Protestant movement which lays stress on the personality of God and His accessibility to devotion. While following the Hindu ideal of the Asramas, the Gita emphasizes the importance of knowledge, charity, penance and worship, and does not decry life as evil: “Nor indeed can embodied beings completely relinquish action; verily, he who relinquisheth the fruit of action, he is said to be a true relinquisher.” The Dharma Sastras Later, treatises on ethical and social philosophy known as the Dharma Sastras were compiled, They deal systematically with the proper conduct of life and describe social , ethical and religious obligations. The Sutras, of which the Brahma Sutra is the chief, are brief aphorisms or maxims. They contain interpretations of philosophic systems and refutations of opposing beliefs. It is remarkable that all philosophical systems in India are known as Darsanas, literally meaning calling insights or points of view. In the well known Sarvadar sanasangraha compiled by Madhavacarya, a great successor of Sankaracarya , the Carvaka or atheistic school, Buddhism, Jaini sm, the Vaisnava philosophy of Ramanuja and Madhva, the Saiva system and several other doctrinal variants, are all described as Darsanas and as legitimate developments of Hindu thought: There are Sutras dealing with the Logical Realism of Nyaya, the Atomistic Pluralism of Vaisesika, the Evolutionism of Samkhya, the tech nique of Mind-control or Yoga, the ritualistic philosophy of Purva-Mimamsa and the metaphysics of Vedanta which attained its climax in the work of Sankara. The Puranas The Puranas cover the intermediate period between thc Vedic and the Classical epochs. Cast in the form of parables and narratives, they became the scripture for the common people. Apart from their religious and often sectarian significance, they furnish a picture of social, political and cultural life and comprise an astonishingly varied repertory of folklore and information regarding diverse topics including philosophy, ethics, legal institutions, popular festivals,and several arts; they deal even with subjects like grammar, prosody, rhetoric, archery and care of horses and elephants; many of them also describe places of pilgrimage. At one time their historical value was discounted; but it is now being gradually appreciated. Fusion with non-Aryans The Aryans marched en masse, guided by a leader who was often a poet, and came into contact with the Dasas and the Dasyus. The point to be noted is the speedy fusion of the Aryans with the non-Aryans. The process had three phases: ( I ) The elevation of non-Aryans and aboriginals by intermarriages with Aryans. (2) The incorporation of non-Aryans into Aryan society in various other ways. (3) Social reactions by which forms of 1ife and modes of thought of the two groups under went a kind of osmosis, intensified by the Buddhist protestant reformation. The Aitareya Brahmana gives an example of the manner in which progressive leaders of the Aryans facilitated the assimilation of other communities. A Rsi was performing a sacrifice on the banks of the Sarasvati; and to this sacrifice was admitted one Kesava Ailusa, a Sudra, whose learning is stated to have put all the Brahmins to shame. The Vajasaneyi Samhita condemned intercommunal marriage, but it is narrated in that work (ch. 23, 30 and 31) that a Sudra was the lover of an Arya woman. By the time of the Mahabharata such great personages as Vyas and Vidura were described as the offspring of the connection of the Aryans with other groups. The story of Santanu and Satyavati, the vow of Bhisma as well as the story of Ambika and Ambalika and the birth of Vidura, also illustrate the above process. Again, in the Mahabharata, it is narrated that Bhima married Hidimbi, a non-Aryan woman, and Arjuna married a Naga girl, Ulupi. A new class of Aryans called Utkrsta came into existence, and was admitted to the privileges of sacrifice. By the time of the Satapathabrahmaa Sudras became incorporated in the polity – a notable instance being the Nisadas. lt is a curious fact (vide Panini’s Grammar, ch. VI, 62, 58) that there were non-Aryan Brahmins as well. Parasara, one of the great sages of India, married Satyavati, a fisher girl, who became the mother of Vyasa, the compiler of the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Such intermarriages or unions were frequent all through Indian history. Emperor Candragupta Maurya who belonged to a lower caste, married Kumara Devi of the Licchavi clan, who was either a Brahmin or a Ksatriya, and she was the grandmother of Asoka. It should be remembered that the groups which crystallized later into the Indian castes were initially not based on any gradation of superiority, the difference being functional rather than racial or communal. These groups, moreover, had their analogues in the Avesta, and the Iranian names do not suggest the idea of colour or superiority. Co-operation of all the classes was needed for administration, and a passage in the Mahbharata indicates that the King’s Council included representatives of all classes of the people. The current rigidity of the rules relating to intermarriage as also interdining among the Indian castes is a comparatively recent innovation. These lines found in severl Puranas are significant: “The great sage Vasistha was born of a divine courtesan, but by austerity and penance he made himself recognized as a Brahmin. The transforming process was attained by self-imrovement.” Another passage says, “Vyas was by birth a fisherman, Parasar was born in a dog-eating tribe, Many non-Dvijas have in the past attained Brahmanhood by their merit.” The Bhagavad-Gita affirms: “Castes developed according to the differentiation of Guna and Karma”, i.e., disposition or temperament and inherited instincts or aptitudes. Both among the Old Iranians and the Aryans of India the original caste system of three classes based on the practical distritution of functions was in existence. The Iranians, however, did not develop another class as the Hindus did – the Sudra. Clearly, the three Hindu caste divisions were not unalterably rigid. The definition of the word Dvija, twice-born, makes the position clear. Dvija is a person who has certain basic qualities: “lf a man ‘s activities be derived from his jati or birth, from his, occupation, from study and knowledge, and if all these are found combined, then he is to be called a Dvija, and not otherwise”. Cultural synthesis In their great trek to India the colonizing groups of Aryans encountered races who professed a firm belief in the doctrine of transmigration. It has indeed been suggested that this doctrine of metempsychosis itself, the cult of serpent worship, the worship of Ganesa, of Uma or Durga, of Skanda or Subrahmanya (the hunter-god) were all adopted by the Aryans from earlier settlers in India. Even the incarnation of Krsna, it has been said, was an adaptation from an aboriginal deity; his life is an instance of the mingling of the Aryans and the Yadavas. In any case, it seems clear that there was a good measure of synthesis of the thoughts and beliefs of the Aryan and pre-Aryan races. There are widespread traditions of the southern migration of the Vedic sage, Agastya, the reputed author of several hymns of the Rg-Veda. His asrama was located south of the Vindhyas; and he is said to have introduced the Vedic religion and literature in the South in his capacity as a uniifying factor between the Sanskritic and Dravidian tongues and ideals. When the Aryan colonisers in the wake of Agastya penetrated to the South, they found an advanced civilisation. The Ramayana describes Madurai as adorned with golden jewels. The grammarian Katyayana mentions the Pandyas and the Colas. Asoka’s Buddhist missions were sent to the Pandya and Cola countries as far as Tamrapani river in the Tirunelveli District. An extensive commercial and cultural inter course grew up between the Aryans and the Dravidians, as also between the Dravidians and countries to the east and west of India. The close contact between the Aryan and Dravidian elements continued all through history and manifested itself in every aspect of life. There is strong ground for the supposition that the importance of Siva, Sakti and Skanda was due largely to Dravidian influence, since the cult of An (Siva), Amma (Sakti) and Anil (Muruga or Skanda) was a cardinal belief from the beginning of Dravidian history. These facts illustrate the composite character of Hindu civilisation. The Sama Veda spoke at length of the Vratyastoma (a particular sacrifice or ritual) by which non-Aryan Vratyas were admitted into Aryan society. The equalization of castes and communities was, of course, brought to a head by Gautama Buddha, though he was no opponent of the Brahminical civilisation. Both he and Mahavira, the expounder of Jainism, while admitting that the Brahmin ideal is the right one, led a crusade against certain aspects of Brahmin culture. Hindu civilisation itself adapted for its use many ideals and precepts of Buddhism and Jainism. For instance, among many communities, offerings of rice and ghee took the place of animal sacrifice – a compromise with the Vedic ritualism. The early Aryans had, of course, been meat-eaters, but probably under the influence of Buddhist and Jain ideas many groups of Brahmins as well as non-Brahmins became vegetarian. Vaisnavism in the South At a later period arose the fully organized Bhakti movement leading to Vaisnavism and Saivism. The ancient Vaisnava mystics and saints in the South were known as Alvars, and the Vaisnavism teachers as Acaryas. They had a powerful exponent of these views in Ramanuja, who attacked the Advaita interpretation of the Upanisads and gave recognition to three ultimate realities, God, Soul and Matter, the last two being dependent on the first. As early as the 2nd century B. C. the renowned Besnagar Column had been erected by a Greek named Heliodorous, who had been converted to the Bhagavata or Vaisnava faith of which the Pancaratra doctrines then formed an integral part; its scriptures were Satvata Samhita, the Mahabharata, and the Bhagavata and Visnu Puranas. The origin of the Pancaratra doctrines which form the basis of Srivaisnava culture has been traced further back to the well known Purusasukta of the Rg-Veda. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to the Pancaratra sacrifices performed by the primeval Narayana, the idea of Nara and Narayana (Primordial man and the deity Visnu) being an integral part of ancient Indian thought. There are more than a dozen Vaisnava Upanisads. It was in the period from the 10th century up to the 17th that many Vaisnava works were produccd. The Vaisnavas regard the Pancaratra literature as almost equal to the Vedas. The Vaisnava Samhitas and other works insist on knowledge of and devotion to, the supreme Godhead rather than on Vedic studies or sacrifices. It is worthy of note that in the Bhagavata Purana (11th Skanda) the A!vars were prefigured or adverted to; several great devotees of Visnu, the Purana states, would appear on the banks of the Tamraparni, Krtamala (Vaigai), Payasvin ( Palar), Kaveri (Cauvery), and Mahanadi (Periyar). The Alvars lived between the 5th and the 12th centuries. The first group included Saroyogin or Poygaiyal var, Bhatayogin or Bhutattalvar, Mahadyogin or Peyalvr and Bhaktisara or Tirumalisai-Piran. Nammalvar or Satakopa, who came in the next group, was perhaps the greatest of the Alvars. Others in this group included Madhurakaviyalvar, Kulasekhara Perumal, Visnucitta (or Periyalvar) and Andal, his adopted daughter. In the last of the groups were Bhaktanghrirenu (Tondaradippodiyal- var), Yogivahana (Tiruppanalvar) and Parakala (Tirumangaiyalvar). The Divya Prabhandha constitutes the collection of the Alvars’ compositions in the Tamil language. The advent of Sankara The next important milestone is the advent of Sankara. In his short but marvellously active life, he travelled all through the country, refuting atheistic and materialistic systems of thought, wrote commentaries on the Upanisads, on the Brahma Sutra and on the Gita. He interpreted these scriptures and built up his thesis with wonderful clarity and depth of exposition. He remoulded Indian thought and destroyed many dogmas. His great capacity for deep feeling and emotional expression was combined with relentless logic. Sankara’s contribution to philosophy is his blending of the doctrines of Karma and Maya, which culminated in a logical exposition of the idea of non-dualism. The entire universe consisting of Namarupa, names and forms, is but an appearance; Brahman, infinite consciousness, is the sole reality. Its attainment and the annihilation of the great illusion of the universe called Maya, by a process of realization, were the objects of Sankara’s quest. He revivifid the doctrines of the Upanisads and, in Dr. Radhakrishnan’s words, he was not a mere dreaming idealist but a practical visionary. His Advaita doctrine is still a living force in India. Sankaracarya established several mathas in India to propagate the Vedantic or Advaita doctrine and the succesive heads of these mathas as well as later scholars like Madhusudana Sarasvati and the great polymath Appayya Diksita have produced important treatises, elucidating the Vedanta as propoundd by Sankaracarya. Sankara’s outlook was based strictly on philosophical thought and logic; but even he has, in numerous compositions, dcscribed the supreme entity in a personal aspect as saviour, helper, friend and guide. He wrote poems dedicated to Nrsimha, Sri Krsrna, Laksmi, and Annapurna, and there is his celebrated lyrical homage to Parvati or Durga – the Saundaryalahari. Sankara was followed by Ramanuja, Madhva and others who called themselves commentators but were indeed creators of new systems. Ramanuja’s philosophy was termed qualified monism and Madhva’s was a dualistic system. The three major forms of Vedanta developed respectively by Sankara, Ramanuja, and Madhva are distinct philosophies, although each professes to have stemmed from the same three sources – the Upanisads, the Brahma Sutra and the Gita. Ramanuja Ramanuja, of course, was concerned much more with the personal aspect. His teachings may be regarded as a reaction against the tendency to view religion on the intellectual rather than the emotional plane. He assimilated many beliefs of the Dravidian civilisation and helped to encourage and promote temple worship and public festivals. Born early in the 11th century, Ramanuja was deeply influenced by the Tamil saints and Alvars – their ideas coloured his interpretation of thc Upanisads and the Brahma Sutra. He put forward a theistic view of the Vedas as against the rigid Advaita point of view of Sankara. Basing his thoughts on Bodhayana and the theistic Upanisads, the Mahabharata (including the Bhagavad-Gita), Visnu Purana as well as the compositions of the Alvars and Acaryas, Ramanuja produced a number of works culminating in the Sribhasya . He proclaimed the doctrine of salvation through Bhakti or faith. His earlier followers came to be known as Vadagala is. About two centuries later the Tengalais appeared; they, unlike thc Vadagalais, did not concentrate on Sanskrit scriptures and traditions and regarded Tamil scriptures as equally canonical. There were several points of difference between Ramanuja and early Vaisnava teachers like Nadamuni and Yamunacarya. One was the importance attached to Swami Krpa, Grace of God. According to one school, this is spontaneous, not depending on any effort or merit of the devotee. The other school asserts that Grace also depends on the devotee’s virtuous action. The religious approach of Ramanuja was mainly based on self-surrender, which must result in universal charity and sympathy, and friendliness even to an enemy. He insisted that the performance of scriptural duties alone was not enough for salvation. Karma Yoga and Jnana Yoga, according to the Ramanuja school, only purify the mind in preparation for Bhakti Yoga or devotion. Ramanuja’s Saranagati Gadya is a notable contribution to the gospel of self-surrender, but it does not rule out caste functions and duties, and the doctrine of Karma. Vedanta Desika, the greatest successor of Ramanuja, and a strong opponent of Sankara’s Advaita doctrine, wrote a very controversial work, Satadusani. Pillai Lokacarya, the famous exponent of the Tengalai school, advocated passive surrender (Praptti) in preference to active faith (Bhakti), and the guidance of a spiritual preceptor, Manavala Maha Muni is the chief Saint of the Tengalais. This school built up a remarkable Tamil literature to which it ascribed an importance equal to that of the Vedas – it was called the Tamil Tirumurai or the Tamil Veda. In essence, however, there was no fundamental doctrinal divergence belween the two sects. Differences in certain features such as caste marks on the forehead and temple ceremonials and usage became accentuated in later years. Successors of Ramanuja As the ideas of Ramanuja spread through India, men like Madhvacarya, Vallabhacarya, Caitanya, Ramananda, Kabir and Nanak came under their spell. Ramanuja and his followers opposed the doctrine of Maya and the interpretation of the world as purely phenomenal or illusory. They emphasized the distinction between thc individual soul and the supreme Godhead and based their philosophy on man’s conviction of sin, his responsibility for sin and the importance of grace emanating from thc divine. In other words, they believed that salvation comes not specially through Jnana (knowledge) or karma (action), but through Bhakti (faith) and Prasada (grace). The Bhagavata doctrine of complete resignation to God was one of the articles of their faith. God was viewed alterlnately as father, mother, child, teacher and friend, and even as the beloved. Ramanuja declared that caste had nothing to do with the soul’s quality; some of the Alvars were in fact non-Brahmins. Ramanuja is said to have admitted even Harijans to the temple at Melkote. One of his later followers, Ramananda, who lived in the 13th century, not only protested against caste distinctions but enjoined that no man should ask any devotee about his caste or sect: whoever worships God is God’s own. Later followers of Ramanuja included a number of scholars who sustained his philosophic system through the centuries. While accepting the set rituals of initiation and worship, they admitted Jains, Buddhists, Sudras and Harijans into their fold. A celebrated successor of Ramanuja was Nimbarka, who lived about the same time as Madhvacarya. According to his philosophy, which is a type of Bhedabhedavada, that is, the theory of the Absolute as Unity-in- difference, Brahman or the Absolute has transformed itself into the world of matter and spirit. As the Life-force, Prana manifests itself in the various cognitive sense functions, and yet keeps its own independence, integrity and difference, so the Brahman also manifests itself through the numberless spirits and matter, without losing itself in them. As the spider spins its web out of itself and yet remains independent of the wcb, so the Brahman splits itself up into numberless spirits and matter but retains its fullness and purity. The reaction against Sankara’s Advaitism reached its climax in Madhvacarya’s dualistic philosophy. It resembles Ramanuja’s doctrine to some extent but stands for unqualified dualism. Madhva, also known as Purnapranjna and Anandatirtha, was born near Udipi in South Kanara in the 12th century. He draws a clear distinction between God and the individual soul, God and matter, individual soul and matter, one soul and another and one variety ot matter and another. Large groups in India follow this doctrine which bases itself on the feeling of absolutc dependence on God and love for Him. Madhvacarya attacked Sankara vehemently on the ground that his philosophy was a disguised variety of Buddhism. It is well known that Sankara was strongly influenced by Gaudapada, who had great regard for the Buddhist philosophy, and it is unquestionable that, while Sankara was opposed to Buddhist thought in general, he was perhaps unconsciously influenced by some of its tenets. Madhva, on the other hand, objected to Advaita: it seemed to him presumptuous for the individual soul to claim identity with Brahman. According to his doctrine, Visnu is the only supreme being; and Bhakti is the primary essential for liberation. Among his great disciples was Purandaradasa, reputed as a social reformer and one of the creators of the Karnataka system of music. Vadiraja, a renowned writer, was another Madhva philosopher. Vaisnavism in the North One of the most influential Vaisnava cults was founded by Vallabhacarya, a Telugu Brahmin who lived in the 15th century. He migrated to the North and in his numerous works in the North he gave an interpretation of the Vedanta differing from that of Ramanuja, as also of Sankara. He called his doctrine Suddha Advaita, pure non- dualism. The world is real, and not an illusion. God is Nimitta- Karana, the causative being. Discarding the Maya theory Vallabhacarya asserts that God cannot be described by negatives but only by his holy and gracious attributes, and is personified in Krsna He is not only karta, creator, but also Bhokta, enjoyer. Though he has no need to assume a bodily form, he often does so to please his devotees. Regarding Bhakti as the chief means of salvation and superior to Jnana, (knowledge) Vallabha opposed all kinds of asceticism. The body is the temple of God, he said. The famous Upanisadic precept Tatvamasi was by an ingenious interpretation, modified by Vallabha as Atatvamasi, “That thou art not”. Vallabhacarya’s doctrines were fully interpreted and expounded by his son Vitthala. Later, in Northern India, there arose the Caitanya movement. Nimbarka had already elevated Radha, the consort of Krsna, to the highest position. Jayadeva, the author of Gita-Govinda, and other poets like Vidyapati, Umapati and Candidas, adopted the Radha-Krsna cult. Caitanya, the great Vaisnava teacher of the 15th century transformed the Vaisnava faith and extended his influcnce in most parts of Northern India. He accepted converts from Islam, the foremost among them being Haridas, Rupa and Sanatana. Salvation, according to his doctrine, consists in the eternal experience of God’s love. Caitanya exercised great influence over later Indian thought. Saktism The cult of Sakti or the mother aspect of Godhead had its roots in the Vedas. The Rg-Veda describes Sakti as the embodiment of power and the upholder of the universe. Sakti is represented as the sister of Krsna and the wife of Siva. She is worshipped as Devi, who is one with Brahman. The literature of Saktism, called the Tantra, gives a high place to women and reacts strongly against caste distinctions. According to the doctrines of the Sakta cult (embodied in 77 Agamas), Siva or the supreme entity is impersonal and beyond activity. Sankara in his Saundarya1ahari declares: “Siva is able to function when united with Sakti; otherwise he is inert.” he Sakta cult and philosophy has had great influence in Bengal and Assam, as well as in Malabar. A variant of the Saivite philosophy, which developed in Kashmir, is known as the Pratyabhijna system. Here, as Dr. Radhakrishnan says, Siva is the subject as well as the object, the experiencer as well as the experienced. “As the consciousness on which all this resultant world is established,whence it issues, is free in its nature, it cannot be restricted anywhere. As it moves in the differentiated states of waking, sleeping, etc., identifying itself with them, it never falls from its true nature as the knower.” In theeme Godhead rather than on Vedic studies or sacrifices. It is worthy of note that in the Bhagavata Purana (11th Skanda) the A!vars were prefigured or adverted to; several great devotees of Visnu, the Purana states, would appear on the banks of the Tamraparni, Krtamala (Vaigai), Payasvin ( Palar), Kaveri (Cauvery), and Mahanadi (Periyar). The Alvars lived between the 5th and the 12th centuries. The first group included Saroyogin or Poygaiyal var, Bhatayogin or Bhutattalvar, Mahadyogin or Peya is the unchanging consciousness and Sakti its changing power, appearing as mind and matter. Cultural fusions in the South Early Indian history cannot be viewed in its true perspective unless the institutions of the South receive adequate treatment. The unity of India transcends the diversities of blood, fusions in colour, language, dress, manners and sects. It is seen in the fusion of Brahminical ideas and institutions with Dravidian cults. This unity, however, has been limited by the later developments of the caste system in a manner different from the original conception which was functional in character and elastic in scope. A typical South Indian village almost invariably has a temple dedicated to Ayyanar or Hariharaputra or Hanuman or Anjaneya, or Ganesa. On many hill-tops there are shrines dedicated to the Devi (Candi) or Kartikeya also named Subrahmanya. These exemplify the tolerant and assimilative outlook of the Aryans. In the context mention has already been made of the Vratyastoma (a particular sacrifice or ritual) by means of which masses of non-Aryans (Vratyas) were admitted into the Aryan society. According to South lndian tradition, Tamil as first developed by the sage Agastya, to whom a grammar, a treatise on philosophy and many other works are ascribed. The oldest Tamil grammar now extant, the Tolkappiynm, is said to have been the work of one of his disciples. The Saivite and Vaisnavite revival due to the Brahmins in Southern India, since the 8th century, brought about a counter- movement among the Jains. Early Buddhism in Northern India adopted the Prakrit or vernacular speech for its religious treatises. On the same analogy, Buddhism and Jainism in the South created works in the dialects of the people. The Dravidian Buddhists and Jains created a Tamil literature which was anti-Brahmanical in sentiment ; and covered the period between the 9th and 13th centuries. The Kural of Tiruvalluvar, *dating not later than the 10th century A.D. is said to have been the work of a poet belonging to one of the depressed classes. It enforces thc Samkhya philosophy in 1,330 poetical aphorisms based on three subjects: wealth, pleasure and virtue. To the sister of its author, the poetess Avvaiyar, are ascribed many compositions of the highest moral tone, and they have enjoyed perennial popularity in Southern India. The Jain period of Tamil literature includes works on ethics. In the same period a celebrated adaptation of the Ramayana was composed in Tamil by Kambar. This is a Tamil paraphrase rather than a literal translation of the ancient Sanskrit Epic. Between this period and the 16th century, two encyclopaedic collections of Tamil hymns, deeply religious in spirit, were gradually formed. One collection was the work of Saivite devotees and their disciples who sought to uproot Jainism. Vaisnavite apostles of the same period were equally prolific in Tamil religious songs. Their Book of Four Thousand Psalms, Nalayira Prabandham, constitutes a hymnology dating from the 12th century. Saivite sects The development of Vaishnavism saw a parallel development of the Saiva theism. A distinctive philosophy of Saiva Siddhanta was evolved about the 11th century. The Saiva Agamas were based on the Vedic concept of Rudra. A large number of inspired writers in the Tamil country were headed by Manikkavasagar. All their works have been collected and are venerated by the South Indian Saivites. The first part of this collection, Tevaram, contains the hymns of Appar, Sambandar and Sundarar. The second part mainly comprises Manikkavasagar’s Tiruvasakam. Sixty three Saiva saints are recognized and their lives are recounted in the Periya Puranam Sekkilar. Dr. Pope, the well known Tamil grammarian, has stated that Saiva Siddhanta is one of the most influential and intrinsically valuable of the religious writings in India. The Saiva Siddhanta recognizes three entities: God, thc Soul or the aggregate of souls, and Bondage (Pati, Pasu and Pasa). The expression Bondage denotes the aggregate of the elements which fetter the soul and hold it back from union with God. In one of its aspects it is Malam, the taint clinging to the soul. In another aspect it is Maya, the material cause of the world. The peculiarity of the Saiva Siddhanta doctrine which calls itself Suddhadvaita is its difference from the Vedanta Monism. God pervades and energizes all souls and, nevertheless, stands apart. This concept of the absolute is clear from the Tamil word for God, Kadavul, meaning that which transcends (kada) all things and is yet the heart (ul) of all things. When the absolute becomes manifest, it is as Force (Sakti) of which the universe is the product. The Dvaita system, on the other hand, insists on a radical pluralism, and at the same time on the complete dependence of the souls and the world on God. One of the important Saivite sects known as Virasaiva was founded by a Brahmin named Basava, who was for some time the minister of a ruler in Kalyan. The Basava Purana outlines Basava’s life. This as also Basava’s own writings in Kannada, describes the fundamentals of a doctrine based on rigid monotheism, Siva being regarded as the supreme, limitless and transcendent entity. Brahmana is the identity of “being”, “bliss” and consciousness, and devoid of any form of differentiation. It is limitless and beyond all ways of knowledge. It is self-luminous and absolutely without any barrier of knowledge, passion or power. It is in Him that the whole world of the conscious and the unconscious remains, in a potential form untraceable by our senses, and it is from Him that the whole world becomes expressed or manifest of itself, without the operation of any other instrument. The Virasaivas, often called Lingayats, are distinguished by the Sivalinga and rudraksa on their person and they smear their bodies with ashes. They are strict vegetarians and abstain from drink. The Virasaiva doctrine has four schools, but the differences are of a minor kind. All believe in the efficacy of a Guru or preceptor. All assert the reality of the Universe and unity with Siva, the only ultimate reality. The Virasaiva doctrine is prevalent in Mysore and in the southern regions of Maharashtra. Great movements of reform Side by side with these philosophical systems, a large body of devotional literature in the spoken languages of India has been developed. This was due to the advent of great reformers-Ramananda, Kabir, Nanak, Mirabai, Vallabhacarya, Caitanya, Tulasidasa, and Tukaram. Ramananda and his Muslim disciple Kabir emphasized the belief in a supreme deity and recognized no caste distinctions, although they accepted the doctrines of Karma and Samsara. Nanak founded the religion of the Sikhs. He was under the influence of Islam as well as of Hinduism and, like Kabir, he believed in Karma and Samsara, Maya and Moksa. He laid great stress on a personal God and a society of disciples not bound by caste or race restrictions. The militant character of Sikhism was a later development due to Aurangzeb’s intolerance and persecution. The great saints of Maharashtra and Bengal created a wonderful literature of Bhakti based on the worship of Rama or of Krsna. Vallabhacarya, in particular, attacked Sankara’s Advaita doctrine. He preached that by God’s grace alone can man obtain release. Caitanya, a contemporary of Vallabha, and his followers called Goswamis, were itinerant preachers whose sincerity of religious experience brought about a reformation in Bengal.: 1. Belief in one supreme God of Love and Grace. 2. Belief in the individuality of every soul, which is nevertheless part of the Divine Soul. 3. Belief in salvation through Bhakti. 4. The exaltation of Bhakti above Jnana and Karma; and, also above, the performance of rites and ceremonies. 5. Extreme reverence paid to the Guru. 6. The doctrine of the Holy Name. 7. Initiation through a mantra and a sacramental meal. 8. The institution of sectarian orders of Sannyasins. 9. The relaxing of the rules of caste, sometimes even ignoring all caste distinctions. 10. Religious teaching through the vernaculars. It was out of these Bhakti cults that the Sikh group transformed itself into a military brotherhood. Bhakti cults gave rise to such works as the Ramayana by Tulasidasa, the , Abhanga of Tukaram and the poems of devotees like Ramprasad of Bengal and Tayumanavar of South India and passionate outpouring of Mira Bai. All these helped to popularize the spirit of devotion and resulted in a great religious revival in many parts of India. Renaissance in Hinduism In the 18th century religion suffered a serious decline mainly because the impact of a completely different civilisation. English education destroyed the isolation of India and brought about an active ferment. Many Indians of the time became either sceptics who leaned towards Christianity, or reactionaries who sought to preserve at any cost the ancient forms and institutions. Fortunately, at this time, enlightened Europeans like Sir William Jones, Sir Charles Wilkins, Colebrooke, Monier-Williams and Max Muller revealed by comment and by translation the treasures of ancient Indian wisdom. Their work was later supplemented by art lovers and art critics, who revealed the secrets of sacred and secular art-forms and concepts. As an outcome of these influences and counter-influences, there arose a series of movements which have been rightly described as a renaissance of Hindu life and thought. Raja Ramamohun Roy was the most outstanding pioneer of these movements. He struck a note of universalism in tune with the spirit of the Upanisads. Born in Bengal in 1772, he studied Persian, Arabic and English. In 1803 he published a book in Persian, with a preface in Arabic, entitled Tuhfat-ul- Muwahhidin. It carried a protest against idolatory and sought to establish a universal religion based on the idea of the unity of Godhead. He started a controversy with the Christian missionaries and published a book in which he tried to separate the moral teachings of Jesus from the miracles described in the Gospels. Rammohun Roy, along with David Hare, stressed the necessity of education in India on modern lines, in opposition to those who objected to English education and insisted on a return to the past. He repeatedly declared that he had no intention of breaking away from the ancestral religion, and wished to see it restored to its original purity. In order to carry out his ideas he founded the Brahmo Samaj on the basis of theism. The Trust Deed of the Samaj laid down that “no graven image, statue or sculpture carving, painting, picture, portrait or the likeness of anything shall be admitted within the building.” The Brahmo Samaj Debendranath Tagore, the next great leader of the Samaj, formulated the Brahmopadesa, comprising tenets from the Upanisads and Tantras. His successor, Keshub Chandra Sen, sought to incorporate Christian ideals into the Brahmo Samaj movement. He began the compilation of a scripture including passages from the Holy Books of many religions – Hindu, Buddhist, Hebrew, Christian, Muslim etc. Then he went to England in 1870, he was welcomed by many Christian organizations. As the result of secessions in the Brahmo Samaj, three institutions arose: The Adi Brahmo Samaj; the New Dispensation of Keshub Chandra Sen; and the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj founded by dissenters from the Keshub Church. The Sadharan Samaj, led by Shivanath Sastri and Ananda Mohun Bose, gave a rational, monistic interpretation of the Upanisads, admitting the essential unity of the universal self and the individual self. The following doctrines, as noted in Renaissance of Hinduism are common to all these varieties and offshoots of the Brahmo Samaj: 1. They have no faith in any scripture as an authority. 2. They have no faith in Avatars. 3. They denounce polytheism and idol-worship. 4. They are against caste restrictions. 5. They make faith in the doctrines of Karma and Rebirth optional. Another offshoot of the Brahmo Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj was founded by Justice Ranade in Bombay. Its programme included disapproval of caste, recognition of widow marriage, and the encouragement of women’s education. Dr. Atmaram Pandurang, Pandita Rama Bai, S. P. Kelkar and S. P. Pandit were the principal exponents of this Samaj. The Arya Samaj As a reaction against the influences typified by Raja Ramamohun Roy and Justice Ranade, the Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati. It attacked the Brahmo Samaj for its pro-European and pro-Christian attitude. A great Sanskrit scholar and a believer in the doctrines of Karma and Rebirth, Swami Dayanand sought to revive the Vedic ideals and laid stress on Brahmacarya and Sannyasa. He believed implicitly in the ancient scriptures, disavowing Puranic Hinduism in favour of Vedic Hinduism. The Puranic texts, he said, had no Vedic sanction. Holding the Vedas alone as authoritative, he stated that God and the human soul are two distinct entities, different in nature and attributes, though they are inseparable from each other as the pervader and the pervaded. The doctrine of Karma and Samsara is of course accepted by the Arya Samaj. One of its main activities is Suddhi, a purification ceremony, by which non-Hindus are converted to Hinduism. The depressed classes and Harijans are entitled to be invested with the sacred thread and are given equal status with other Hindus. The Arya Samaj also reclaimed many Hindus who had been converted to Islam and Christianity. Sanghatan, organization of the Hindus for self-defence, is one of the main principles of the Arya Samaj, and it has played its part as the church militant in the Hindu fold. The Theosophical Society The Theosophical Society, founded in 1875 by Col. Olcott and Madame Blavatsky, co-operated with the Arya Samaj and tried fora time to organize lndian life on national lines and check the activities of Christian missionaries. Col. Olcott and Madame Blavatsky went later to Ceylon, declared themselves Buddhists, and took part in a movement for the revival of Buddhism. Dr. Annie Besant joined the Society after a period of militant agnosticism, side by side with notable social service, and political work amongst the Fabians in England. She became the head of the Theosophical Society in 1891. Claiming that she had been a Hindu in her former birth, Annie Besant worked throughout her life for the regeneration and activization of Hindu thought and Hindu life. She published a translation of the Bhagavad-Gita along with Dr. Bhagvan Das and popularized Hindu ideals in her numerous publications and marvellously eloquent speaches. A defender of many orthodox ideals, she turned later to social reform, which included the partial modification of the caste system. . One of thc main principles of Theosophy is the belief in a brotherhood of great teachers of the past who are supposed to be living still, watching over and guiding the evolution of humanity. The Theosophical Society under Dr. Besant’s guidance spread the fundamental principles of the Hindu religion – Karma, Reincarnation, Yoga and spiritual evolution. Sri Ramakrishna and Vivekananda Sri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa, a great devotee and mystic, had a broad outlook of universalism. After accepting the discipline of Yoga and Tantric Sadhana, he underwent the discipline of the Vaisnava, the Christian and the Islamic ways of life. To rouse the religious feelings of the wordly-minded and re-affirm the ancient truths of Hinduism by an appeal to experience, he trained a devoted band of followers, the most outstanding of whom was Narendranath, Swami Vivekananda. Sri Ramakrishna’s teachings were neither new nor heterodox. As Swami Vivekananda said on one occasion, Ramakrishna brought old truths to light. He was an embodiment of the past religious thought of India. Like other great religious teachers of the world, he projected his ideas through parables or images. Questioned, for instance, on the problem of evil, Sri Ramakrishna said:” Evil exists in God as poison in a serpent. What is poison to us is not poison to
  5. yogesh saxena Says:

    The everlasting impact of my journey in my dreamland, Germany during the period of attending the conference of World Parliament Experiment, and my further visit to France, Belgium, Austria, Rome, Florence and Venice has left the scar and has been eroded forever on account of violation of Human Right in India. As soon as, I stepped inside my home land i.e. India, I suffered a set back of having no place of sitting at platform in anticipation of arrival of the booked train after few hours, which gradually converted to half of the day without any accountability of the erring Official. Since the Rampant corruption is ascending in alarming situation and so far its galloping race is not halted on account of character assassination of the employees and officials governing the nation, some thing crucial is required to be done to eradicate corruption apathetical attitude towards public by infringing their human right.. Wake up India against it ,otherwise it will be too late for Indians. There is complete apathy with the suffering of the people, who have already undertaken the Journey in some other nation, where accountability of the officers is immense and proximate to the human right. It was just like that some body (Bird) flying in the sky, and there after he was pushed by the wind in opposite direction, from where, even to maintain an equilibrium for the survival of that bird flying at high altitude, may become impossible. Thus the poor bird may be compelled to think over that what was there in flying the air. No man can protect his dignity and Human Right on account of lethargic attitude of the Employees, who have become corrupt and Money Gurgler, eroding the very foundation of people, from whom they are having the enumeration for their survival and Livelihood.
    Is India worth saving? Is democracy worth saving? These are the two fundamental questions we must address now – before it is too late. Indians values are disappearing rapidly as we lose our independence and our sovereignty. Every Indian is having the debt upon him at the time of his birth of 140 dollars, which is equivalent to Rs. 6000/- each. According to the calculation of World Bank in 2005 , India was ranked as debt ridden countries list at Seventh place. It was undergoing through the debt of 165.4 dollar upon each Indians.
    This has happened with me after arriving here from European Nations, where I was invited to attend the world parliament Experiment 2008 (WPA 08) at Bonn, Germany. It was a tedious journey full of glamour, as it was beyond my expectations that one may travel on the same tracks by undertaking his journey inside the Inter-se-16 Countries Railway services., Inter cities Railway Journey, travel through fast moving Buses and Trams, as well as by own private cars, through cycle and the pedestrians on the walk will be passing through same tracks without confrontation. I undertaken my journey through Moscow to Düsseldorf ( Germany) on 2.15 A,M. on 21st Feb 2008. I reached Moscow at about 8.15 A.M. on 21st feb. 2008. From here, I have to change my flight to catch one Airbus carrying very few passengers upto Düsseldorf ( Germany). I reached their at about 9.45 A.M. It is worth while to mention that there is the difference of 4.30 hours earlier in Germany. After the immigration and custom checking, I was received by my sister Sandhya Saxena at the Airport itself. She has taken me on the short drive to her Small well furnished flat, where I have taken the Tub bath in open Sunlight, as the roof of the flat was covered with the strong glass. There after she had taken me on drive at a distance of 25 K.M. to a hospital in orthopedic ward, where my Maternal Uncle, on account of dislocation of his back bone, was operated on his spinal cord,. It took another hour, when I finally reached to his residence at kerkern. This place was located inside the Village, and there were beautiful farm houses with full of systematic farming and for generating the electricity. There were big wind fans roaming by the flow of air to generate electricity. The right hand driving was without any rider or obstruction on the passage. The speed of car was regulated by the computers and every where in Germany, the police was patrolling as to provide a check on the crime. It was the second Floor of the house, where I was offered to stay during night and since it was already late, I could not visit my shops to purchase Indian vegetarian food items. Any way Sandhya left me their and there after she went to her home, which was located in Düsseldorf.
    On 22nd feb. 2008, I visited the local market along with my aunt and also the local Bank, in order to convert my 500 euro currency note to small denomination of currency. I was taken to the big market, the churches of different sects and also to the Buddhist disciples, as the entire family of my maternal uncle is pure vegetarian, like many other Germens and they have the keen interest in learning Vedic traditions and Upanishads. Every where there was the clean air and the garbage is stored in the Garbage Containers according to its variety. One may not find that polythene bag is lying in the garbage of Tissues papers and biodegradable substances were placed to use them as fertilizers. They were eating only the substance of food Items, which are cultivated upon the biodegradable substances like the extracts of the wood and Leaves, which were in abundances. There was plenty of teak woods plants, “Seesam” trees, and other plants which are generally found on the hills. The whether was like the whether of Simala, Chail, Menially, Darjling and of other Himalayan cities. It was resembling to the whether of Pathankot, Chandan-Wadi and Amarnath as will as of Gulmerg and Tunmerg in Kashmir. There was full of Oxygen and one may take pleasure of riding on the Hilly Tracks in Germany.
    Since the Opening session of World Parliament Conference was scheduled from 23rd Feb. 2008, I was dropped there by Sandhya and there I was offered to stay at the residence of Mr. Kristofferson Kiomall located at Kreuzherrenstrasse-53, across the Rhine River in the City of Bonn, Germany . It was located near Limperich Railway Station, where there was no office to purchase a ticket, Except the screen having display of the Charges to different destinations. On the next date,I was traveling about 14 stations to reach at Tennenbusch Mitte after crossing Hauptbahnhof (Main Railway Station) at Bonn. However I was told that I have to reach Tennenbusch sud, which was located one station prior to the said station. The place of Conference was lying at the walking distance. However on account of pronouncement difficulty in Dutch language, I could not reach there, except after being fetched by Dr. Rasmus Tenbergen, the Executive Director of WPE08 at Bonn. However the other day the venue of conference was changed to the Main Hall at the University of Bonn. The university was lying within the walking distance from Hauptbahnhof (Main Railway Station) at Bonn. Thus I started coming to this place on foot from Kreuzherrenstrasse-53, across the Rhine River in the City of Bonn, Germany. It was in the night of 24th Feb. 2008, that when as per the instruction given to me by Mr. Kristofferson Kiomall, he will be available at home after 10 P.M., I reached there on foot at about 10.30 P.M., I found that there is no light out side as to inform the gentle nan about my arrival at his home. I rang to my uncle and when he rang again to him then the door opened after one hour. This has given me a lesson to come early. On the next day after attending the conference, I saw that some miscreants are chasing me from a long distance and stop their car on the blockage of the road and waited there for my arrival, but knowing their evil design by my sixth senses for probably snatching my movie Camera, Automatic Zooming Camera, My mobile of Samson and 600 euros, which I was carrying along with my bag , I stopped there till they have not fled away from the spot. However when I proceeded ghastly to reach at the place of my destination, I was fallen on the slop near the bridge, which was near the Railway Station Limperich and being injured on my forehead , I reached the place of Mr. Kristofferson Kiomall located at Kreuzherrenstrasse-53, across the Rhine River in the City of Bonn, Germany. Thus I have made up my mind not to take the risk any more as there is no one even to understand my language of conversation. I decided to undertake my Journey on Eurail Pass ticket to France, Rome, Venice, Austria and Florence. In the conference, I was made moderator on the first day and there after I was allowed to address the August gathering of the people assembled there to attend this conference.
    In this process since the time was very short and I wanted to visit other Important cities of Germany like Frankfurt, Stud guard, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Munich, Berlin and Hamburg, I have purchased the D.B. Bahn ( Railway Ticket with reservation Coach) as I may travel during night and may visit these cities during day time. I am really indebted of my sisters Sandhya, Usha and my Uncle Sri Ram Mohan Saxena and his Wife for there affections. Sri Ram Mohan Saxena prepared the delicious Indian food preparation all the time. He has given me the gift, which are very valuable for me. My aunt has taken me on long drive to Abbey café, and old Kerkern , Where the Hitler during 2nd World War , on account of being suspicious on Neither land Spying racket, had conducted the rigorous Raid on the said Church.
    However the reception, accommodation delicious Indian food dishes and the treatment given to me by Sri Harro Jensen and Uta Jensen, with whom my family meet at Sarnath, Varanasi, is of no expression in this writing of my sentimental outburst. She greet me in Hindu tradition and offered me the “KHEER” made up of best rice. They offered me the place of Bhantey Ji for Sitting and also the room for my staying during the night. The three storey house hang the construction on wood was excellently decorated with precious Collection. The offering of every potential, which this family of Mr. Harro Jensen was having in her contributions to provide it an permanent impact on the memory of their association with a strange individual is of no compression. Sri Harro Jensen has taken me inside the tunnels below the River and simultaneously on the highest Bridge, as the water of such river may not provide the blockage to transportation. The sight lacks, the churches were marvelous. Mr. Harro Jensen has shown me the big Ships lying across the River, the containers and other Storage places of Carpet, and the Chinese cabins meant for staying of the tourists. The buildings prior to the 2nd world war were duly preserved to show their heritage. I was taken inside the different underground trains and was invited for introspection. He has taken me to Indian Restaurant namely Kashmir Hotel run by the Couple belonging to Amiritsar, Punjab. The Paratha and Kofta, Paneer with beans and the rice was delicious as that of the five star Hotel. On the next day , I proceeded to take the sentimental departure , I could see the sentimental breakdown of Smt. Uta Jensen, when she left me to depart with her husband as he may show me the beautiful place again. Number of gifts for my Children, my wife and other friends were offered by them. Then I have taken a ride in the Ship, which covered a long distance and there after came back to the site of our boarding in the train. H e wanted to show me every thing and always taken the care of my baggage and when I insisted for lifting it by my own then he said me that in case of my insistment, he will get me, being uplifted on the other soldier. There was the true relationship developed by Mr. Harro Jensen and Uta Jensen as both these couple after completion of 52 years of first marriage, are having three children and their grand Children. I could see the trust of Friendship and since Mr. Harro Jensen have his date of Birth on 2nd march, he was having the zodiac sign the real Aires with the Mars in its full broom and his wife was Virgo. They were having the marvelous collection of Pottery, Sea Side Collection, Collection of Beautiful Flower and every thing at his house was auspicious. I can never forget such reception in my life.
    Gradually the time ended in my dream land as the time of my departure arrived very soon. I was boarded in the Train at 7.4 A.M. to reach Düsseldorf from Neo-kern ( New Kerkern) . The timing of the train is sharp edge time schedule and the train , even not arrive late by few Seconds. I reached Düsseldorf and from there I was required to reach 17th platform from 7th platform. The language was heavy. Then I took train upto Air Port Düsseldorf. I reached at 9 A.M. there. The departure of my Flight was scheduled at 10.40 A.m. on 6th March 2008. This flight through Air Bus again has taken the time of 5.10 hours. I reached Moscow at 15.50. Then I was required to wait upto 20.50, Which was the time of the departure of my plane. It took about 6 hours and 40 minutes to reach at Indira Gandhi International Air Port at New Delhi. The mental agony started only thereafter. On the Air port , I was subjected to undertake a rigorous standing of 3 hours only to have my Immigration check Up. Thus I missed my train schedule to depart at about 7 A.M. for Allahabad. Thereafter I purchased the ticket from train scheduled to depart at 16.30 P.M. from Nizammuddin Railway Station . Delhi. At the last the moment, there was announcement that the train will now depart late and is expected to depart at 20.40 O Clock. Thus again the untold story of mental agony of the person, who was provided accommodation in 5star Hotel during night in Germany, only on account of the delay of 10 minute, as the connecting train from Munich to Düsseldorf was not available due to late arrival of such train from Hum berg. It was already 36 hours sleepless journey undertaken by an Indian in Europe, Who was craving to reach at the place of his destination at Allahabad, U.P.in India.
    The continuation of dynastic rule by Gandhi era has become consciously or unconsciously the foreign Rule. No one Single handedly may elect the representative of the voter to the electoral college. The concept of spirit inherently personal choice of the voter to get their representatives in electoral college has been completely vanished. Exercise of liberty vote is overburdened with !) to evaluate expression less action performance at the behest of the people in power2)to select the candidate as representatives from the limited choice imposed upon the voters by party system 3) to express their adult franchises like a illiterate voters amongst the limited choice between the rascals nominated by party as god fathers mainly on the basis of money power or by choosing an idiot, who may be ruled with remote control even on the post of President and Prime Minister 4) Criminals may be given free hand to take a political decision under the garb of appeasement 5) Nehru- Gandhi nexus which remain responsible for creation of Pakistan has again risen their heads to divide India , Pakistan and Bangla Desh in many Segmentations. This is virtually the Concept of Rule of majority vote. The country is being dismantled after more than a half century of nation building. On 26th January, 1950, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar said that India will become Independent Country. India has been lost by it’s infidelity and treachery by some of our own people. The invasion of Sind by Invader Mohd. Bin Kasim, as the Military commanders of King Dahar accepted the Bribes and they refused to fight. It was Jai Chandra “Arjun”, who invited Mohammad Ghori to invade Sri Prithivi Raj Chauhan and promised help of himself and of the King Solanki. History has been repeated in case of Afzal again. Their will be another hijacking of Plane to get him release. The attackers on the Court premises are well protected by these traitors living in our country and killing the so called infidels under the banner of Jihad?. Our independence , after creation of Pakistan is again in jeopardize and probably we may loose it forever On 23rd Feb. 2000 , Sri K.R. Narayanan, President of India promulgated “ The National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution by a message:- Right of vote under universal adult Franchise gives Right and opportunity to participate Every men in Democratic process and select a Govt. However we all know that the election system in India may not get the rid to the system of Corruption, Crimilisation , money, nepotism , favoritism and Muscle power. Home Minister of India accepts in 2002: – There are the defect in election system, but it is difficult to blame for it to the Government, it’s officers, and to the Political Parties. Sri Bimal Jalan said that Common Citizen is concerned about Administrative apathy, Corruption and failure to provide Promised benefit to the poor Farmers. India is ranking Highest in the Global corruption level of World. Here is dismal Ranking in Human Development. We may see poverty as the caste to the people is placed above for elimination of poverty, alleviation, hunger, Illiteracy and health. This problem is Systemic and never projected like Episodic to the people. We are losing control of our most important industries. As we give up domestic ownership of our assets, we lose the most exciting and challenging jobs, which too often move to the new corporate headquarters outside India- and young people who want those jobs must follow. It’s part of the brain drain. In effect, India has become a victim of “Globalization”. We are told this process is both inevitable and good. It is only inevitable if we let it happen. It is only good for twenty percent of the world’s richest and most powerful people. It is bad for the vast majority. We need debate for participation of 1000 people for electoral college candidates in future election process to come forward and eliminate the monopoly of limited Choice for selecting the representatives by the voters. There must be the implementation of systematic Solution , even at the cost of absurdity and obsessive- ness in the defective system. We have to search the effect- cause and relationship in reformative trends. There may be some strategy to represent majority of farmers for making a proposal to provide them the cost of International Market. There may be tortuous liability and lesser faire policy of functioning be made accountable. Let criminals may know that Crime is a bad Bargain to them. The license Quota System be abolished and Religious activities be prohibited on public Premises as secularity of nation in multifarious religious country be Maintained

  6. yogesh saxena Says:

    In all the Vedic texts there are methods given to calculate the shortest day of the year, Uttarayana, and the entry into Capricorn, the most important festival in India. he/she, instead of advising us to perform Tapasya and yoga for calculating such phenomena, should not have any hesitation in quoting those Vedic mantras which advise us the methodology of calculating them!

    Calculating Uttarayana,in fact, is not an esoteric phenomenon for which one has to take recourse to tapasya and/or yoga! On the other hand, it is just a geographical/astronomical phenomenon and can be calculated by anybody with the help of just a gnomon! The most ancient Indian astronomer, viz. Acharya Lagadha of the Vedanga Jyotisha, never advised us to take recourse to Tapasya or yoga to clculate such phenomena but he just gave some mathematical procedures! It was only Maya the mlechha who hoodwinked us by claiming that the planetary knowledge had been revealed to him by Surya Bhagwan as he had performed “Tapasya (sic!)”. As everybody knows, the fundamental arguments of the Surya Sidhanta of Maya the mlechha are the most inaccurate, in fact absurd! That much for gaining planetary knowledge through Tapasya! On the other hand,today’s “Vedic astrologers”, including these “Tapasvis” and “yogis”, have to depend on NASA/JPL for calculating even their own horoscopes! Why don’t they calculate at least their own “Vedic horoscopes” through their own tapasya and yoga or with the help of “Vedic mantras (sic!)”?You will be surprised to know that the scholar informing us <In all the Vedic texts there are methods given to calculate theshortest day of the year cannot read, much less write, Sanskrit at all! Still we are sermonized and pontificated on the Vedas, which the most well read scholars like Acharya Sayana or Max Muler, for that matter, approached with temerity!

    Coming to “Capricorn” symbol in “Vedic astrology”, right from the date of Varahamihira the charlatan to the so called greatest Vedic astrolgoer of the twentieth century, we do not find any references to “Capricornus” symbol as “depicted” by the scholar! In India, names of Rashis are written in an alphabetical form and it is “Ma” for Makar Rashi. In horoscopes, rashis are depicted by numbers as 10 for Makar (taking Mesha as 1). In South Indian charts even the numbers are not given as they are accustomed to read charts in a particular format! Thus it is actually a Greek symbol of Capricornus constellation which was/is used by Western astrologers for their so called Capricorn astrological sign! Now it is the same Greek symbol which is being thrust down the throat of Akhanda Bharatam! In other words, it is Greek astrology that is being practised on the shoulders of the Vedas!

    Then again, the scholar is silent about nakshatras, when actually, as every Hindu knows, the Vedas are full of references to them, as against no reference whatsoever to the so called Makar Sankranti! And how does the scholar relate Ashvini, Bharni etc. nakshatras to the so called Mesha etc. astrologcial signs! The million dollar question is: which nakshatra fits into the so called Makar Sankranti!
    1. I have studied all the four Vedas. I have not found any “methods” in any of the Vedas to calculate the Uttarayana etc.. As such, Would the concerned scholar kindly quote the exact mantras from the Vedas which tell us as to how to calculate Uttarayana and other Rashis etc.

    Having previously responded to Krishen-ji’s continuing confusion about the connected significance of the Veda, the, Makar Sankranti, the Uttarayana and the Capricorn Hieroglyph, I see no need to comment further. Permit me to repost my former response which speaks directly to the limitations of his method of so called ‘study’ of the Veda.

    Like most scholars, you believe that Truth is obtained through study and interpretation of existing knowledge in the form of books scriptures, etc. and you place a special emphasis on translation and interpretation. To arrive at Truth in this way is not Truth itself, but merely a mental consensus about Truth beyond which you cannot go. All of the scholars you mention with ‘names to be reckoned with’ suffer from this same limitation.

    Recognizing this at some level and unsatisfied with their conclusions you vowed to do your own research:


    But what have you actually proven with all your efforts except that you have reached the same limitation that they have. You may wish to regard your ‘lack of discovery’ as definitive but in your heart you know it is capitulation and so you write:

    “. what cannot be cured, has to be endured! As such, I had no alternative but to believe that there were actually no Mesha etc. Rashis or Mangal, Shani etc. planets in the Vedas.” akk

    This is the crux of your error Krishen-ji, to say you have ‘no alternative but to believe’ is a contemptible affront to the very wisdom tradition that you claim to espouse. Worse yet, you consider your woefully insufficient efforts to be the last and most authoritative word on the subject. Unfortunately, this mental arrogance has become the standard for what passes as Vedic Wisdom in India today. Listen carefully to these words of Sri Aurobindo and Patrizia and ask yourself if you are capable of such an effort. If you find that you are not up to the task, at least learn to respect the wisdom of those who are.

    “. [Sanskrit text].’Not by explanation of texts nor by much learning’, ‘not by logic is this realisation attainable.’ Logical reasoning and scholastic research can only be aids useful for confirming to the intellect what has already been acquired by revelation and spiritual experience. This limitation, this necessity are the inexorable results of the very nature of Veda.” Sri Aurobindo Archives & Research Vol. 4, No. 2, December 1980. Under the title ‘The Life Divine, Chapter II’ \

    “This is the key to the difference between the Veda and what followed. It is the point Sri Aurobindo makes when he states that dristi, sruti, smriti, ketu formed the foundation of the Vedic
    experience. These are illuminations that arise solely within one’s inner being, never through dissolution of the nexus of one’s consciousness by extension to the Beyond. Yet though this Earth-orientation is the primary ingredient in a true Vedic quest, its very first premise, it is entirely overlooked today. Indeed, we have the moderator of the Hindu Calendar Forum (A. Krishen Kaul) referring to such intuitive insights as ‘hallucinations’. Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet, “Sri Aurobindo and the Condition of Vedic Wisdom in India”

  7. yogesh saxena Says:

    A RESEARCH PAPER BASED UPON THE THESIS OF- Dr. Ashok Saxena,MANAS PRAKASHAN , 121, Manas Nagar, Shaganj, Agra E-mail ; mail2ashoksaxena@yahoo.com

    “The time is the unique and exclusive singular potency of the Lord creator on whose directions, the time and its marvels are created. Without time, nothing is the entire creation can become meaningful or comprehensible by the consciousness that supplies to the universe, its purpose and abilities to function as per divine design. It is beyond human comprehension and thus does not need to be pursued for understanding. Vedas have called ‘Time’ or ‘Kaal’ as ‘Sanshaat Brahman’,meaning another explanation of divinity.”

    The great epic Mahabharta records, a fascinating chapter on time. Creation and the destruction of the created Universe are both religious and spiritual Vedantic philosophy. Dr. Ashok Saxena’s research work is a solution of the hurdle of the present accepted theories of today’s scientific invention which has established that the Hindu thought was very scientific.
    Dr. Ashok Saxena theory of unification of electromagnetic and gravitational forces have strengthen the logical perception of Hindu Philosophy. Dr. Ashok Saxena creative achievement by writing the book “INSIDE A WAVE” has created another history of pronouncement to Vedic Tradition. Dr. Ashok Saxena is an imminent Orthopedic Surgeon. The electromagnetic current used for healing the long bones during his Post-graduation Diploma and in obtaining the Master of Surgery Degree in Orthopedic in the year of 1976 and from such time, his experience in the outstanding effect that universe is filled with energy as a primordial soup of big bang in space substance. These particles are vibrating with a time gap of least time i.e. Planck’s time @1.855 x 1043 vibrations in one second. These vibrations provide energy nature to these particles of space substance. These energy particles occupy the entire universe and symbolize not only space by its three dimensions but time and energy. Dr. Ashok Saxena postulates that energy is the fifth dimension of universe.
    Hindus scriptures contain matter on the subject including the Special Theory of Relativity of Einstein by him in the year 1906. Hitherto, it was postulated that TIME was an absolute entity that marched constantly in a straight line. Indian scriptures explaining the creation and its marvel always held TIME on earth as different from time in the various Heavens. Even the modern scientists have agreed that indeed time itself has been relative depending upon the position of the observer in our Universe. It speeded up of slowed down in to points on earth. The author of Mahabharta explains that as per Hindu belief one year of the Creator ‘BRAHMA’ equals to lakhs of tears of Time seen on earth. There are several interesting ‘Kathas’ in this context written in Hindu Puranas. Even on earth there are different time zones separated by 4 minutes with each longitude of the globe.
    Dr. Ashok Saxena work not only unifies electromagnetic and gravitational forces, it also explains the basis of all the theories and phenomena’s listed here. By considering energy as fifth dimension and on the basis of proposed model of universe all these mentioned phenomena have been explained in the slides that follow and thus indirectly proves the model. What is light :- Planck’s constant & Basis of Quantum nature of energy. Matter waves & uncertainty relation. Explanations of “theory of relativity”. Newton’s gravitation and laws & general relativity : Planetary systems. Principal of equivalence, conservation of momentum & energy conservation. Atomic structure and its behavior & mass energy relation. What is Electron :- Electricity, magnetism, geomagnetism & motion of bodies. Thermodynamics, temperature, entropy, gas theory, work & Energy transfer. Cosmic ray energies and accelerating galaxies. Energy behind Earth quakes, volcanic eruptions, Twisters and Aurora formation. Behavior of universe and its fate.
    The space matrix is interwoven like threads in a sheath of cloth and have multiple layers. These particles of space substance while constituting five positive dimensions are inter woven with voids which have five negative dimensions to form the space matrix. Thus these energy particles in flat space matrix is potential energy of the universe and by deformation of this space matrix (Space) the potential energy changes to kinetic energy and in this deformed space the time moves differently. In present ear these true voids are still curled up and slowly uncurling to expand universe. While the particle of space substance symbolize all types of energy and on their condensation not only all bosons but matter is formed. The lord asked to fetch some water from the river that flowed next to them. Narad went and dipped his vessel in the river and without releasing, he was immediately transported to another Divine Time zone. In that zone Narad spent over 50 years or more. He lived in that zone and begot his own sons and grandsons. His body stood totally forgotten of his past and the Time simply stood changed. Later in Time, the Katha explains that once again Narad’s young grandson asked Narad that he wanted some water to drink. On the mention of the world ‘water’ by Narad’s grandson, Devrishi Narad is said to have forthwith reverted to the earlier Time and its memory when he had gone to fetch some water from the river that flowed next to where lord had asked him to fetch some water from. The period of Time that Narad spent with his sons and grandsons disappeared. Narad stood close to the river as before and returned to the lord with the vessel of water as was directed by the Lord Creator. The Lord seeing Narad rushing back with water said, “Well done, quick work”. The Lord Creator smiled and Narad understood the answer to his question of ‘MAYA’. This was the turn of events caused by the Time that could expand, contract, create or even annihilate the time itself.
    The modern science following the accepted theory of Big Bang explosion presumes that the space substance itself came into being after the explosion and gave birth to infinite particle of space substance. By their own properties, they occupied and determined a distance between one space substance and the 2nd space substance. These infinite number of space particles vibrate at the speed of light @ 1.8555 x 10 raised to the power 43 vibrations per second. The space of the universe is therefore filled with immense energy. Einstein researched and produced his famous equation ‘E=MV sq’. Energy and Mass are thus inter-convertible. These energy particles occupy the entire universe and symbolize not only space by its three dimensions but also time and energy. Time becomes the first dimension and energy becomes the 5th dimension of the divinely created universe, it has no limit of magnitude in any direction corner or sphere. This is the modern scientific view. The space particle constitute five dimensions, the time being no. 1 which supports both Energy and Mass. The energy born first is the potential energy, which supported by time and on account of vibrations turns into Kinetic energy. Thus force, mass, momentum, distance, motion, velocity are also simultaneously born with the space and the creation. The modern science taking everything together gives to another name of earth’s rotation with its effects as what we call and understand as ‘inertia’.
    The Hindu Philosophy accepts the time in the Devlokas (Heavens) being different in measures. These are believed to be many heavens in which time reckons differently. It further declares that 1 Devyug or Mahayug in terms of time period comprises of 12000 heavenly years. These are further divided into four different period of time. The time and the conduct in these time periods is based on what the Hindu philosophy calls as Dharma. One such Mahayug of 12000 celestial years is divided into four different periods of time. One Mahayug of time is also called as one Chaturyuga. The Chaturyuga on the earth are called (i) Satyug (ii) Tretayag (iii) Dwaparyug and (iv) Kaliyug. One Chaturyuga is said to contain 12000 Devyugas (10,000 + 2000 years of what is called the time period of ‘Sandhyas’ of simply meaning the period of time spent in the preparation of bringing into being the commencement of time in each Yuga.).
    A day and night of the Pitrs (manas) consists of 30 days and nights of human beings. Hence the Full life span of Pitrs would be reckoned at 3,000 years. Even so, a day and night of the gods consists of two ‘Ayanas’ of 360 human days and nights. Thus the full life span of the generality of gods would work up to 36,000 human years.
    One-half of Brahma’s life is called ‘Parardha’. The first Parardha has already expired and second is now running (has commenced from the current Kalpa). The first Parardha opened with a momentous Kalpa, the Brahma Kalpa, in which appeared Brahma, whom the wise recognizes as Veda personified.
    This egg-shaped universe, constituted as it is of the eight causal principles (viz., Primordial Matter, the Mahat-tattva, the Ego and the five subtle elements) and the sixteen evolutes (viz., the mind, the five senses of perception, the five organs of action and the five gross elements, none of which evolves further), has a breadth of five million Yojanas (or forty million miles) is covered outside by seven sheaths (viz., earth, water, fire, air, ether, the Ego and the Mahat-tattva), each of which is ten times larger than the one is surrounds, that cause all causes. In this universe, with all its covering sheath looks a ‘Paramanu’ and which comprises myriad of other universe. He is called the indestructible Brahma; and that is the transcendent reality of the most ancient person, Lord Vishnu, the Supreme spirit in embodied form.
    Lord Krishna being approached first desired to examine and test the veracity of Bakin’s claim who was asked by Lord Krishna to first produce his three divine arrows gifted to him by Goddess Durga. Lord Krishna also desired Bakin to demonstrate the strength of the three divine arrows. The lord told Bakiri that right in front of him stood a large Oak tree with uncountable number of leaves. Demonstrate the worth of your arrows by considering the leaves of the Oak tree as your enemies, said Lord Krishna to Bakiri. While Bakiri got ready to shoot his first divine arrow. Lord Krishna placed one leaf of the Oak tree under his own foot. He hid the same under his left foot in order to test the divine strength of the arrows. The gathered Pandavs, Bakiri and Lord Krishna saw the great divine potential of the arrows, when by divine arrangement, the arrows duly surveyed all the leaves of the Oak tree and further reached the left foot of the lord himself under which was hidden one leaf of the Oak tree. The 2nd and 3rd arrows similarly performed.
    Causing holes to be made in each and every leaf of the tree. The divine arrows also came to pierce the left foot of the foot of the lord himself. It is said and believed that by the use of lords’ own YOU MAYA he averted the pierce of his foot to be made available later for causing his own death in his Manushya Rupa. It is believed that Lord Krishna ultimately passed away from this earth when in a jungle thinking Lord Krishna sleeping in a bush and exposing his foot shot an arrow that had been earlier surveyed and left unharmed by the divine arrows of Ma Durga.
    The first arrow was meant to test and survey the strength of the enemy of Bakiri and the 2nd arrow was meant to mark the number of opponents of Bakiri. The 3ed arrow was meant to bring the death of the surveyed and counted enemies of Bakiri. The arrow behaved and exhibited their potential perfectly, which meant if Bakiri was accepted as a starting comrade of the Pandavs who when and if victorious becoming stronger then the Kauravs would immediately lose Bakiri who would than join the weakened Kauravs and fight against the stronger Pandavs. Lord Krishna understood the dilemma of the situation and further heard the insistence of Bakiri praying that the earned boon by him from Goddess Durga was the sole and only purpose of Bakiri pleasing Ma Durga. He was even ready to die in their cause as he desired to watch the totality of Mahabharat war. It was fought for 14+4 days. The Lord Krishna to Bakiri that if he agreed to stay himself and caused his dead body without its head hung on a nearby hillock from where the lord by his ‘YOG MAYA’ could cause his body without head still watch the whole of 18 days battle of Mahabharat fought at Kurushetra.
    The above katha continues further since through YOU MAYA, Bakiri witnessed the fullness of Mahabharat war. On its conclusion some of the surviving warriors discussed amongst themselves as to who could really be named as the first foremost and most outstanding warrior in the 18 days war Mahabharat? They could not decide this between themselves. They agreed to approach Lord Krishna to settle this point. On being so approached, Lord Krishna pointed to the headless body of Bakiri still hung up at some distance away on the hillock. They all approached the headless body of Bakiri who by virtue of lord’s You Maya.
    “None in that bloody war was higher or bigger than yet another participant(death), who continuously and with out stoppage, devoured the endless number of bodies of the humans and the animals, horses and elephants. He was that divine body holding in his four hands, lotus flower4, discus, sudarson Chakra and an open palm with three divine arrows. I saw him the only superior most warrior engaged in this war throughout present, yet never himself fighting but still living in the body of each and every warrior engaged in this war.
    The surveying warriors cleared of their doubts, returned to their camps all the time repeating the name of the lord in their mouth.
    Dr. Ashok Saxena has asserted that now this becomes a circumstance deformation of space matrix and the ultimate limit of load, which can be propelled by deformation of space matrix at the speed of light. With increasing quanta and with decreasing wave length the deformation of space matrix changes form longitudinal deformation in EM waves to a limit of circular deformation is gamma photon. On further increasing load above 1021 quanta energy the deformation of space matrix while increasing in transverse direction forms the De Broglie’s waves. Now the inertia sets in by wrapping of space time on this shed off condensed energy which constitutes micro particles. This micro particles can be propelled only at sub luminal speeds by space matrix.
    Dr. Ashok Saxena research further suggests that on increasing the energy to three quanta in photon packet this photon folds thrice to reduce its wave length to ( 1.855 x 1043) /3. It forms 3 layered coloumns of supporting space matrix and the each coloumn supports ‘ photon particle density’ (A2) of 9 particles over its entire wave length. Thus with folding of photon packets by integral number of folds the wave length of photon packet reduces but the height of supporting coloumns increases according to the “ photon packet density”. Thus whole spectrum of EM forces forms, from Radio wave, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultra violet, X-rays to Gamma photon. The deformation of space matrix at the load of gamma photon of 1021 quanta energy, having wave length of 1022 particles distance and supported by kinetic energy coloumns of 1021 layers height. The height of coloumn is equal to frequency = amplitude= speed of rotation of photon packet per second = it magnetic momentum of photon packet.
    These gravitational waves lifts these masses to convert them as symbolic point mass, and the planets move in the gravitational coloumn of sum in a particular Solar circular gravitational wave according to this position of planet in solar system. The position of planets in solar system (a deformed space) is according to their molecular configuration based on the potential and kinetic energy ratio of its molecules. Speed of revolution of planet, direction of rotation and its tilt is according to its position in a particular gravitational wave of sun. what ever may be our vision about our self the fact is that we are “inside a wave” of solar gravitational field on a small planet named earth.
    This universe, in truth, is nothing. There were no heaven and no hell, nor the same in existence at present. Every action has it’s own repercussion. This was the comedy of the error with an amplifier, having the co–incident, that the life is originated in this universe. There was no sign of existence after the creation of earth. The sun was having its radiation on the newly created planets after disintegration. Thus the earth was also having the turmoil of uncertainty in the process. Gradually the heat transmitted in the atmosphere. There was the creation of the gases.
    The nitrogen, helium and ozone gases were emitting from the earth. There was the nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. The molecules were disintegrated into the hydrogen particles and likewise there was also the creation of oxygen from the ozone gases. After unification of the molecules of oxygen with hydrogen, the water came into existence in the form of the gases. There was a period of transmission of energy in the atmosphere. However, gradually the preservation of the heat could have only been regulated. The coverage was provided to the universe from the outer periphery of ozone layer on the outer side of the atmosphere.
    Thus by getting the protection through the outer radiation from the infrared and ultra violet rays, there was the cooling effect in the atmosphere. This process has gradually converted the steam of the water particles situated in the atmosphere to the condensation process. By having the rain of the water and other chemicals from the internal surface of the atmosphere, there was the accumulation of the water everywhere. However, subsequently due to the emission of the particles from the lower surface of the earth, there was again the vapor formation. These processes remain operative for thousands of millions years before when as a mere co-incidence, the water was accumulated in the ocean of the earth. There was no such rain as were in existence, but the mountains started from where the process of evaluation generated. There was the alga formation on the mountains and ridges and similarly there was a jelly formation in the water due to friction of the molecules. Thus the live molecule was created in side the jelly like substance in the water and thereafter the formation of the ameba taken place on this earth. The theory of evaluation of life is the subsequent process.
    The vital question for consideration for our human being is to the effect as to whether the same process is a mere co-incident at the time of the birth of an individual. There is the generating of the heat in the process of life when the idea is exchanged. These ideas ultimately become the process of reproduction. There is the combination of the molecule again in the similar process. Thereafter the creation of the zygote inside the ovary of the female. Thus if we consider the life being originated from the ocean, whether the penetration of the sperm in the egg is also the starting point of the theory of reproduction. Ultimately the life is converted into a reality when the living organism took place in the process. We forget that the existence of our life is similar to the creation of the universe. Thus we start thinking for our survival. The struggle is of no significance because it continue for some period and thereafter it vanishes from its origin and thereafter the human being realizes that his existence is for the time being.
    This was a mere co-incident that a particular ‘Y’ chromosome was penetrated in the egg and meet with ‘X’ chromosome. Thereafter the process of life started. The shape and the identity of the person are concentrated on particular genes. When our existence is of such a small molecule from where we can get ourselves being recognized with some identity. This is the illusion of life when we claim for the recognition of our existence. The creation of the false existence is a direct assault on the identity of the power that has created our life. Even if we deny taking into our identity, the very existence of God, but still the value of the life cannot be put to any doubt for always being a controlling factor over the living being.
    This is the starting point of our wisdom. The moment we give up to our intelligentsia through logical perceptions by converting it from analysis by observation, the reality of truth comes to the memory. This process ultimately lead to an individual from committing any sin as the repercussion of the same may be detrimental to one’s own existence. No body will like to loose his own existence for the mere satisfaction of his egoistic nature. Thus ultimately we use to connect ourselves from some controlling power and thereafter the existence of God comes to our conscience. This is the ultimate truth of life.
    History of man is one long search for God. However, we cannot subscribe to the theologian’s theory of God. Life is the image of God, which is essentially a spiritual being. If the equation of life is taken into consideration, there can be no doubt that the man cannot eternally remain forgetful of his spiritual nature. Then he will find out his self.
    Time is having three-dimensional Picture, in which, there are certain memories of the past having it’s permanent impact on the way of thinking; the present as we have visualized it from such angle; and the future with our expectation to be fulfilled. Thus in this process, we may sidetracked from our inherent characteristics and may start challenging the time-honored customs. The reckless spirit of defiance of well-established sacred principle becomes the way of life. There is the open crusade against the religion. There is no religion equal to it’s potential, in which, there may be compassion for the animals and birds, truthfulness in the behavior and love for the fellow being. Thus the religion is based on the philosophy of brotherhood and spiritual cult of life. The places, where there is the program organized to slaughter the animals, as that of giving the sacrifices to the deity, these are not the places of religion but these are slaughterhouses.
    I have known the truth, but you can not know it. This is the preaching of every prophet. There lies their greatness. Thus they bring down the highest truth to the door of every man but never allow it to reach to such man. This is the religion of life. The true religion, which may be achieved through spiritual knowledge, seeks the truths of the inner world.
    Bondage is of the mind, and freedom also is of the mind. A man is free if he constantly thinks and feels: I am a free soul. Life and death are in the mind of the man. Thus one should have a burning faith in God. He may feel that he has no bondage .He will fellow the instruction of the God.

    On the basis of research work of Dr. Ashok Saxena article composed by his Brother
    Vice President of Hind Kishan Sang than
    President(legal cell) Akhil Bhartiya Kayastha Mahashabha
    Phone 0532-2637720, 2435451, 9415284843, 9451181638
    E mail yogrekha@yahoo.co.in/ yogrekha@rediffmail.com

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